Mar 31

Missed opportunity

Posted by Packaging Sense in Typography | Uncategorized

When designing a sachet or a carton, you receive a technical drawing from your supplier, be it a converter, i.e. a printer or a machine supplier. This drawing indicates areas for glueing or areas which should not have too much ink, as it seals badly.

So far so good. However, as most packaging engineers or machine suppliers are so eager that seals really hold, they now and then go too far by indicating “no print area” on the drawing.

My advice to all graphic and package designers is to verify if the above holds true. In a multilayer plastic material, the print may for instance be reversed which means that the ink will not stick to the sealing equipment.

Why do I bring this up? Because I seldom see seams with print, mostly because there is a photocell mark. However, if you check it out with the photocell manufacturer, you’ll find out that the text can be red if the photocell is black, etc.

As the seam often goes through the middle of the back panel, as for instance on potato chips bags, this seam can be used for an important message.

The illustration of an Indian Maggi noodle sachet is a good example of what I suggest. The text just repeats the new variety name. No doubt a call-to-action would have been far better, as for instance “enjoy real chicken bits”. When will the designers finally change information to communication?

A similar example are the inner flaps on a Jordan cereal pack. When you open a carton of cereals, chips, etc. you cannot avoid looking at the flaps as you open the carton.

So next time you design a pack, look out for a place where a sales message stands out!

Sep 16

Why do so many consumers have a negative opinion about packages? There are mainly 5 reasons:

  1. too difficult to open;
  2. too small texts, practically unreadable;
  3. overpacking – too much material or too big a pack in relation to the product/content;
  4. incomprehensible changes to product, i.e. package design;
  5. no handle for heavy packs and other ergonomical weaknesses as ‘slippery’ (unstable) plastic bottles in the bathroom.

All these weaknesses could be corrected if the will to do it were there, which is unfortunately seldom the case. As the reader of this website has certainly understood, I am particularly interested in the service (back) panel which, as I see it, is still quite catastrophic, as pack designers are not specially interested in making texts easy to read and brand managers do not really care…

Well, in one market in Europe, i.e. Norway, this is changing thanks to the Norwegian Association of the blind and partially sighted (NABP). NABP is at the moment running a campaign for “readable texts on packaging” (see ill.) where they use the big “U” as an icon with the website “uleselig.no”, which eans “non-readable-norway”.

They pick out particularly bad packages, advertising, etc. and use, as headline, “up with the text” and then add the culprit, be it a brand like TORO or a TV company as Telenor. In showing the bad example, the headline even says “the worst of this week”! Wow! What a lesson for all designers (if they read the ads, of course!)

Now, the attentive reader will most likely make the standard comment that I’ve heard many times: “…but there is no space to make it bigger!” which is wrong, as a designer can always make space available!

This can be done if

– you reduce the amount of text;
– you print the text positive and not negative;
– you print in the seams;
– you reduce the size of the barcode;
– you make use of the QR code, as some text is not obligatory on the pack;
– you understand what the average consumer is really interested in (which is mainly the ingredients list and not so much the nutritional GDA, etc.) and you structure the information and do not slavishly follow what the predecessor did;
– you use just common sense and not best practice and you do not automatically follow blindly company guidelines!

A big hand for NABP! You are doing a great job! Have just read your journal “All About Vision” where there is no text below 10-12 points!

August 2014

Jun 16

Design & Copy = Copy Designer

Posted by Packaging Sense in Typography | Uncategorized

In an advertising agency, we have project leaders, creative directors, account executives… and copy-writers.

At the beginning of my career, I was mostly trying to solve problems visually, i.e. with pictures, photos, etc. while during my last 20-25 years, I have become more interested in the verbal side of the communication. And here I should like to coin a new term: Copy Designer! and promote this function in a design agency. Most designers with whom I worked during my career were only partly interested in the written word. We therefore did not always reach optimal solutions for package designs, as well as in-store communication.

Today, my main interest is the communication side of package design (hence this website packagingsense.com) and this involves both the verbal and the visual sides. Most designers are mainly interested in the front panel or in the pack shape. The back panel – I prefer to call it the service panel – is often left to be just filled with text, i.e. it is not designed. By the way, my nickname, during my Nestlé years was ‘Mr Back Panel’ as I relentlessly tried to establish a stronger link with our consumers through interesting service panel designs!

So today, I am launching the new word ‘copy designer’ to promote better verbal communication on packaging!

May I suggest that the copy designers try to make the pack as interesting as the free journals Metro and 20 Minutes, following basic rules for the service panel design:

  1. no need to repeat brand or product denomination;
  2. inform with big letters how to best enjoy the product which for instant coffee will be the right dosage, for a prepared meal or pasta the correct cooking time, for a shampoo not to use too much of the product, for a fresh milk product the last day of consumption, etc.
  3. The second most important information, if not already given on the front, is a big website, the QR code, the company address and telephone number;
  4. Information which doesn’t interest every consumer, such as ingredients list, legal information, etc. can then be given.
  5. As word-of-mouth is the most efficient and cheapest media, I always suggest to add a sentence like “We hope you will be pleased with our product and be encouraged to tell your friends about it. Thank you!”

To succeed with the above, you need a designer who is interested in both the layout (the visual part), and the content (the verbal part) of the front, as well as the service panel. Let us call such a designer “the copy designer”!

June 2012

Jan 26

Once I heard that typography was a “beautiful group of letters and not a group of beautiful letters”. If you look into the Oxford dictionary to know what “beautiful” means, you’ll find “pleasing to the mind as well as to the eye”. In my opinion, “pleasing to the mind” is identical to what communication should do, i.e. reach people’s mind. Does today’s typography do this? Well, only partly, as we have never had so many ‘amateur typographers’ as anybody can type on a keyboard today, knowing next to nothing of how to put letters together for easy reading!

This is particularly obvious on package design, whereas the typography in books, newspapers and weeklies is dealt with by professionals.  It’s not me to teach typography, although I had the chance to work for two years as a typographer, using, at that time, a composing stick.

The letters we use in the Western world originate from the Greek and Roman empires. If you go further back in time, you will learn that the alphabet was invented by the Phoenicians. What has Gutenberg to do with this? He was the first (if it wasn’t already the Chinese) to produce individual cast letters which, put together, made up words that were printed in special forms and then separated, i.e. de-assembled and assembled anew, composing new words, etc. This meant mechanical handling and the beginning of book printing.

It was a bit later in the 16th Century that many type faces were cut. As those who developped the typefaces were highly skilled craftsmen with full understanding of how our eyes capture words and sentences, these typefaces are still among us. Hundreds of books have been written on this subject.

I obviously have my favourite typefaces which include mainly the serifs such as Bodoni, Bembo, Indigo Antiqua (by my schoolfriend Johan Ström from the Graphic Institute in Stockholm), Times of course, as well as the sans serifs like Gill, Helvetica and Optima.

During my Nestlé years I produced a small handbook with the title “Truths in design and typography” which explained, in a layman way, the basics of good legibility using colour, contrast, typeface and layout. I explained that positive text (i.e. black on white) is more legible than negative text (white on black). I explained what David Ogilvy told some 50 years ago that “five times as many people read the headlines as body copy”.

I explained that, unless the text is very big, lower case lettering is more legible than capital letters. I explained that the most legible length of a line is what you have in newspapers, i.e. between 4-7cm. It means that less than 20 characters or more than 60 are harder to read, unless you read a book where there are no disturbing elements around!

Never use a typeface which is so full of style or ‘character’ that it is difficult to read. Books and newspapers always utilise the most legible type, but there are other typefaces which, as well as being easily read, can reinforce whatever characteristic you wish to emphasise for the product – elegance, creamininess, high quality, childlike, simplicity, exotic, etc.

Great typography is to achieve the best balance between

  • size of letters
  • contrast against background
  • distance between lines
  • width of columns
  • choice of typeface

Lower case lettering is, as said above, easier to read as the eye needs a rugged line to follow a text as shown with the word “Information”.

There are many ways to highlight a word or a sentence as for instance

  • underlining
  • italic typeface
  • bold typeface
  • using “quotation marks”

However, before you choose a typeface, a layout, etc. the talented “copy-designer” (see article on this subject)

  • keeps the sentences short;
  • uses simple words over complex ones;
  • chooses familiar words;
  • selects carefully the verbs as they add action;
  • uses terms that the reader can picture;
  • writes to express, not to impress;
  • uses ‘loaded’ words, i.e. words that lead to action;
  • re-writes the copy several times to reduce the number of words;
  • asks a third person to cross-check the logic, the meaning and the spelling.

I’d like to add to the above some general rules regarding layout:

  • Large shapes appear closer than small ones.
  • You do not need to see a complete logotype or illustration as the reader automatically fills in the missing part.
  • Converging lines suggest distance and often give a more three-dimensional effect.
  • Dark colours appear closer than light ones.
  • Drop shadows added to typography create the appearance of volume.
  • Shapes that overlap other shapes appear in the foreground. However, too much overlapping and enlargements reduce the quality of perception.
  • Black letters on a yellow background give highest readability on distance viewing (see road signs), whereas black letters on white, as mentioned earlier, are the best for close-up reading.
  • In using calligraphy or script you can be very expressive, creative and pictorial.

Being a passionate calligrapher, I obviously favour to use the abovementioned typefaces, but mix them with a more personalised typography, i.e. calligraphy. As my professional career has been in the food and drink business, I have come to believe that there is more ‘taste’ in calligraphy. Just compare the way “Menu” is shown below:

When Nestlé inaugurated a Research Center in Singen, Germany, I was given the job to express the Nestlé company slogan on the wall. Here it is:

Hopefully, these advice will help the designer or brand manager to use typography in a more professional way to make interesting texts highly legible!

For those who wish to learn more, there is an excellent book, “Type Matters” by Jim Williams (Merrell Publishers, London).

Apr 17

Forever recycled

Posted by Packaging Sense in Design | Trends | Typography | Uncategorized

I have already written about cardboard and aluminium as packaging material. This time it is steel. Plastic and glass are still on my list, as all materials have a role to play in the world of package design. I like them all, but when it comes to longevity and protection, steel is a clear favourite.

Steel is the most recycled mono material; it lends itself to a very fast and efficient filling process for cans and is so strong that it requires virtually no outer (secondary) packaging. It is the most tamper-evident material and offers 100% protection against light, water and air. Food packaged in steel has equivalent vitamin content compared with freshly prepared products and requires no refrigeration during transport and storage.

So much for the technical side of steel packaging. Now, as www.packagingsense.com is about communication and design, here are some of my favourite steel packages:

Steel is by far the best material for special edition packages we wish to keep and re-use for maybe other products. My preferred ones are the Kambly and Oreo biscuit tins which have been embossed to amplify the structure of the two products. I specially like the attractive surface which furthermore does not need any label!

Second on my list of preferred steel packaging are all NIVEA tins, be it the standard small size (see special article about the NIVEA identity), or a special edition such as “SWEET moments”.

Great timeless steel packages are Jean-Paul Gaultier’s products such as perfumes, aftershaves, etc. They are excellent examples of how to stand out in one product category by choosing a can typical for another product category (preserved food).

What I specially appreciate with steel packaging is the simplicity achieved when a label does not cover up the surface as on many preserves. I love the Amici tin from Illy, the Standard Vodka (there are also many whiskies packed like this), the beautiful Japanese Sapporo beer.

A package communicates through shape, illustrations and texts, but the most memorable property is no doubt the touch, specially the combination of structure and temperature. The steel pack gives a chilled touch that communicates freshness.

Long live steel packaging!

Oct 17

Learning to write, forming the various letters like the teacher writing on the blackboard, is also learning to read. The same, unique movement of his hand, is equally the main tool for the graphic designer.

Gutenberg, Didot, Garamond, as well as Albert Boton have all transformed their rigid typographical movements into wood, lead and lately, digits. We owe them a lot!

This article is about those designers who create logotypes which are aesthetically pleasing, even beautiful, thanks to their special artistic vein and craft.

What is a brand if not a harmonious original form of typography that is for ever etched in our memory? Here we do not refer to sloppy logotypes (of which there are many) which have been hastily put together with the help of the computer, just deforming some letters, often in an erroneous manner. No, let us pay tribute to those logotypes which are well thought out, designed, worked out over and over again. Those logotypes that have stood the test of time and survived fashion and marketing directors! Let us honour some of them and you’ll understand:
Kleenex, Walt Disney, Ford, Virgin, General Electric, New York Yankees, Vespa, Thierry Mugler, etc.

But first comes Coca-Cola which logotype was designed around 1900, which has been very little retouched over the years and is today the most well known brand on Earth, even translated into Thai, Chinese, Arab, etc.

In the 80ies, they tried to replace Coca-Cola by Coke (as that is what the Americans say), but they quickly understood that the handwritten special logotype with ‘movement’ was superior and thus maintained.

If you compare the Coca-Cola development or evolution with Pepsi’s new soulless shape and banal letters you will understand that, in this article, we want to praise the movement when the designer forms a logotype.

Have a close look at General Electric and how it has withstood the test of time, how New York Yankees still please the young and how Harrods is the archetype of department stores brands.

To those who have been given the task of designing tomorrow’s logotypes, I say: don’t satisfy yourselves with some typefaces which you can ‘play around with’ on your computer; design in the real sense of designing which is to create! Be inspired by the brands mentioned above. Let your hand move over the paper or the screen until your logotype is aesthetically pleasing and respects the beauty of our Roman letters!

The above is the translation of a French article written by my friend Jean-Jacques “Pentawards” Evrard. For the very interested reader, I may also refer to the excellent Penguin book “The Craftsman” by Richard Sennett.

May 30

Advertising Advice

  • • Typography in advertising:
  • – avoid reverse type
  • – avoid script
  • – avoid too long lines
  • – avoid trendy typefaces
  • – avoid fat typo if message is light
  • • Most of the consumers will only see picture + headline + brand and do not read body copy.
  • • A poster should have maximum 3 elements (2 would be even better).
  • • Important: word and picture should not say the same, but achieve interest thanks to tension/intrigue/surprise, i.e. a dynamic situation.
  • • Don’t do the expected!
  • • Advertising only works when the consumer discovers something relevant.
  • • Say the same thing over and over again… just in a different way.
  • • In an advertisement always show the package with imagination.
  • • A poster has no time to explain itself.
  • • If you establish a strong emotional link between the brand and the consumer:
  • • you’re increasing the brand loyalty;
  • • the consumer is willing to pay a premium price.
  • • Advertising style is an essential element of brand personality. It has to be consistent.
  • • Advertising has to be ‘entertaining’ because the public expects it to be.
  • • Advertising is not about ‘sending messages’, but ‘establishing contacts’.
  • • No two markets are the same, but lifestyles are the same in all markets.
  • • Pauses are illusions… it makes your mind imagine things that give you a fuller/richer message.
  • • Big ideas are born as good ideas and then grown into big ideas by working on and nurturing them over a period of time.
  • • A brand manager should not be judged on how much he changes advertising or packaging, but on how much he improves and develops the existing ones!
  • • True originality is a risk… take it!
  • • A strong brand can make a product literally taste better than another.
  • • A strong brand carries with it added values in the consumer’s mind.


Packaging Advice

  • • Consider packaging as the best communication medium.
  • • Design for the consumer first, for the legal, technical and other people second.
  • • Watch out for wrong savings! A white shipper is great, selling graphics (2-4 colours) cost very little more than a one-colour brown box.
  • • Don’t forget the tactile role of packaging.
  • • Think total packaging, i.e. retail package plus display and shipper.
  • • Big branding is a must. It is important to be seen.
  • • Reduce the amount of text!
  • • Always question if you have the best solution. What was best yesterday may not be good enough today.
  • • Update continuously.
  • • Packaging is teamwork (designer, product manager, copywriter, purchasing, production/technical/legal people).
  • • The cheapest solution seldom adds value.
  • • Exploit modern technical possibilities and print in seams, under seams, close to photocells, etc. Don’t take a ‘no’ for a ‘no’ from your technical advisor; there is a difference between what a package engineer wants and what a consumer would like to see or not.
  • • Strive for less colours. Practically everything can be printed in 4 colours.
  • • Try to switch from rotogravure to flexography to save money.
  • • Improve the intensity/strength of the inks used for brand colours. It increases impact. The Pantone number should be considered as the reference, not necessarily the ultimate.
  • • Interpret the legislation more creatively. We are often more driven by what we can’t do rather than what could be done. Bring technical and marketing people together at the conceptual stage of a project in order to avoid a “no, it can’t be done” later on.
  • • Use only the best opening device (tearstrip or thumb-press). Always indicate how to easily open/cut a sachet.
  • • Start with the ‘big one’ on the front panel and then design the rest in order of importance (information hierarchy is a must).
  • • Analyze if a ‘portrait’ design would not be better than a ‘landscape’ or the opposite.
  • • Embossing of brands or illustrations are today achieved without extra costs on cardboard.
  • • Trays and shippers are today too technically- and cost-driven. Make them advertising-driven.
  • • We do not work enough with ‘loaded words’, i.e. action oriented texts. Don’t just print statements! Think communication, not just information.
  • • The tactile role of packaging materials is important. Does your package ‘feel’ good?
  • • We must be more pro-active in package development to avoid the need for more than 4 approval visas (marketing, trademark, legal, technical) before a package goes to print.
  • • Collect ‘best in category’ packages as inspiration. You learn from the masters (bench-marking).


The 5 myths in Advertising and Packaging

1st myth The eye pattern from top left to low right. It’s the IDEA that decides the layout

2nd myth Visual impact should be EMOTIONAL impact. The IDEA will dictate the impact. Headline must intrigue and captivate

3rd myth Mnemonics or mnemonic devices. A gimmick is not a true memory trigger. True ones are Ronald McDonald, the Lilac Cow, etc. The mnemonic must involve you. Quality of message is superior to frequency.

4th myth Don’t print your copy strategy like a book title. A headline must be an intrigue between text and picture. A headline should invite the reader to draw his own conclusion.

5th myth Don’t let typography be a design tool. It is a communication tool. Always columns. Avoid trendy typefaces. NEVER negative copy!


A small comparison

Always set out to reduce the word count in any commercial presented to you; The copy on the front panel should only have key words!
Be an absolute maniac about imaginative and inspired casting; Food styling is like God, in the details;
If you have something you can dramatically demonstrate, use it to its full effect; Exaggerate and highlight product taste, structure or advantage
Never allow a slice-of-life commercial to become a slice-of-non-life; Copy on back: consumer language is superior to producer language!
Make each commercial in a campaign be an evolution of it, not just a mirror image of the last commercial. Rejuvenate your pack design constantly!
May 02

A strong brand identity is always built through proper use of the brand logotype and graphics, the colour or colour scheme and/or the brand spokesman, icon or symbol.

A disciplined, but at the same time creative use of these elements over a long period of time leads to unique identities such as MARLBORO, AMERICAN EXPRESS, NESQUIK and, not to be forgotten, COCA COLA.

Today more than ever it is important to be creative with an identity in order to not only be contemporary, but stay ahead and awake interest as Google is doing so well. One ingredient in an identity which plays an important role is the style which in most cases is the sum of logotype, colour, graphics and symbol.

The master in doing this was by far MARLBORO as was seen in the advertising during the Winter months when the warm red-white colour scheme was even changed to snow-white without loosing its impact.

A brand which today is doing an excellent job using a style is Apple with its products. Can anything be done simpler and still leave freedom to choose different colours?

Another good example is H&M which has created its own style (copied by several other fashion brands) thanks to simplicity, i.e. only three messages: a beautiful mannequin, a clear price and the brand logotype H& M.

Two other styles that have struck in my mind:

  • Lacoste with people jumping in the air
  • San Pellegrino’s label pattern that was temporarily changed last year into a Missoni pattern without loosing its identity

As brand strengthening is one of our ‘weapons’ to increase the bond with consumers we must constantly team-work on building more unique styles for our brands. This can only be done if there is a strong link between those who design our communication, i.e. the design company (mainly packaging), the POP company, the advertising agency and the brand manager with the help of a communication manager when available.

Total communication has been a buzz word for decades. However, really great total communication is still in its infancy and money invested in communication wasted.

Aug 16

The 5 stages…

Posted by Packaging Sense in Advertising | Design | Trends | Typography | Uncategorized

…to successfully visualize and verbalize an idea

1st stage
DESIGN the key properties, i.e. the visual and verbal identity for the brand or product to be used in ALL media. This is a conceptual work, i.e. an IDEA and not a final execution! To be done in collaboration with Design and Advertising agencies. The idea is best ‘conceptualized’ with rough layouts using traditional magic marker sketches.

2nd stage
Execute the chosen idea in several media as for instance packaging, print advertising, website, POS material, TV or outdoor. Here the design computer is the best tool, but remember that the execution is still on the conceptual stage. Do not yet judge the executional quality!

3rd stage
Design the final execution of this idea for the package which will ALWAYS be the main medium for the identity as this is what the consumer is looking for and buying. Build in a powerful ‘call-to-action’ message, be it an extraordinary appetite appeal, a powerful USP text, easy-opening or re-closure systems, a nutritional plus, etc.

4th stage
Prepare a one-page identity sheet with a short explanatory text and DISTRIBUTE it to all parties involved, i.e. agencies, purchasing, sales people, legal advisors, etc.

5th stage
UPDATE, SIMPLIFY AND AMPLIFY continuously. A brand or product identity is a living matter as the competitors and distribution channels change.

Aug 04

Total communication

Posted by Packaging Sense in Advertising | Design | Typography | Uncategorized

In order to achieve maximal impact for least money is, as this article explains, not a complicated matter. However, in practice, very few brands achieve this today as the communication is split up between different units, departments or managers. Furthermore, a communication coordinator with decision rights is seldom at hand.

The following illustration gives an overview of how each medium plays a different role to achieve maximum brand and product impact, i.e. sales!

There is a common belief that a design guideline (often with tenths of pages) laying down strict rules on how to use the logotype, the icon, etc. is the solution to efficient communication. I have a very different opinion based upon half a century producing packaging, POS and advertising material for FMCG companies.

My belief is based on the following 5 reasons:

  1. the market situation is constantly changing;
  2. we regularly learn new working methods which will help to improve communication;
  3. technology gives us constantly new materials, media, etc.;
  4. what we thought was a good solution may turn out to be less good than we thought;
  5. all manuals/guidelines are correct on an average, but often wrong in particular. One market is seldom a copy of another.

How to design a manual will be the subject of a separate article.

Each medium has its own rules and limitations. One medium may be the best to promote branding, another medium to promote a product. Here is a quick analysis of what different media can do:  Outdoor, TVC, weekly and daily print, direct mail, website, consumer service, point-of-sale and packaging. I have left out media like sponsoring and sampling as I have very little experience in these fields of activities.

Outdoor (buildings, trucks, busses, etc.)
I believe it is here we make the most mistakes as we do not accept the limits of our brain. We believe that the client/consumer/customer is interested in what we are doing and we therefore overestimate the impact our poster has. It goes without saying that the role of an outdoor campaign or single unit poster is to tell the consumers that we (as a brand) exist … nothing else. We can possibly add an illustration of our product, but that is all. However, 80% of all posters carry today considerably more information.

TVC (be it a short spot or a cinema commercial)
Here we need to

  • surprise the viewer, i.e. be different to other brands;
  • ‘hammer’ in both brand and product in order to be remembered;
  • be as emotional as possible.

If the pack is shown in the commercial it cannot be the complete pack design. It must be a simplified version. Furthermore, it does not necessarily need to be the complete pack, part of it or the key visuals are enough.

Weekly press advertising
Lots of time, lots of space! Tell a story! Make your product the star, try an interesting layout. Reduce text. Do not duplicate anything! Have the reader tear out the ad and you have a greater chance to sell.

Daily press advertising
Simplify to the maximum. Daily press is for news, ads have less impact, but still they remind the reader of your existence. Make your ad interesting through

  • a catching layout;
  • amplifying your USP and strongest possible branding.

In-store sampling
Be generous! Combine with a campaign to amplify the effect. Find people with smiling faces!    If possible, simplify pack design to include SALES COPY on your sample pack.

Consumer Service Contact
Best voice, best voice, best voice!

Sell products, not brands.

Point-of-sale material
Product before brand. Amplify USP! Call-to-action (visual, verbal or symbolic) is a MUST. Involve the consumer by personalizing the message. Be different and be simple! Brand is here less of importance as consumers buy products, not brands.

Shelf stopper
USP/RTB only, nothing else. Interesting execution and design as if it were a real bargain.

Package design
To be best in class, follow these 5 advice:

1.     simplify front panel to a maximum;

2.     design back panel as an advertisement or newspaper page, i.e. invite for reading;

3.     think material and shape before graphic design;

4.     amplify contrast !

5.     surprise with interesting layout.

Packaging is no doubt the most efficient medium as it contains the product. A great package design even enhances the product and makes it more valuable.

The advice in this article are in no way complete, but they try to convince the reader that there is not one solution that fits all media. To reach maximal impact which is translated in efficiency, i.e. economy, be willing to even modify the visual identity if this leads to more impact and does not harm the brand identity longterm (Toblerone is a good example).

Good luck and great sales!

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